Correct staging is critical because treatment (particularly the need for pre-operative therapy and/or for adjuvant treatment, the extent of surgery) is generally based on this parameter. Thus, incorrect staging would lead to improper treatment.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which cancer has developed by spreading. The stage generally takes into account the size of a tumor, how deeply it has penetrated within the wall of a hollow organ (intestine, urinary bladder), whether it has invaded adjacent organs, how many regional lymph nodes it has metastasized to (if any), and whether it has spread to distant organs.
Overall Stage Grouping is also referred to as Roman Numeral Staging. This system uses numerals I, II, III, and IV (plus the 0) to describe the progression of cancer.
- Stage 0: carcinoma in situ. is an early form of cancer that is defined by the absence of invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding tissue, usually before penetration through the basement membrane. In other words, the neoplastic cells proliferate in their normal habitat, hence the name “in situ” (Latin for “in its place”). For example, carcinoma in situ of the skin, also called Bowen’s disease, is the accumulation of neoplastic epidermal cells within the epidermis only, that has failed to penetrate into the deeper dermis.
For this reason, CIS will usually not form a tumor. Rather, the lesion is flat (in the skin, cervix, etc.) or follows the existing architecture of the organ (in the breast, lung, etc.). Some CIS, however, do form tumors, such as in the colon (polyps), in the bladder (pre-invasive papillary cancer), or in the breast (more properly called ductal carcinoma in situ).
Many forms of invasive carcinoma (the most common form of cancer) originate after progression of a CIS lesion.Therefore, CIS is considered a precursor or incipient form of cancer that may, if left untreated long enough, transform into a malignant neoplasm.
When explaining a laboratory report to a patient, most doctors will refer to CIS as “pre-cancer“, not cancer. However, because most forms of CIS have a high probability of progression into invasive carcinoma, doctors will usually recommend that the lesion be completely removed. Therefore, CIS is usually treated in much the same way as a malignant tumor.
- Stage I: cancers are localized to one part of the body.
- Stage II: cancers are locally advanced.
- Stage III: cancers are also locally advanced. Whether a cancer is designated as Stage II or Stage III can depend on the specific type of cancer; for example, in Hodgkin’s Disease, Stage II indicates affected lymph nodes on only one side of the diaphragm, whereas Stage III indicates affected lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. The specific criteria for Stages II and III, therefore, differ according to diagnosis.
- Stage IV: cancers have often metastasized, or spread to other organs or throughout the body.
CANCER PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
Many cancer risk factors are avoidable. Preventing cancer by attention to eating a balanced food to nourish your body and keeping your digestive systems in optimal condition (no constipation) and by quitting or never starting smoking are the most significant strategies to reduce cancer risk. Prevention of cancer is being investigated in clinical trials on dietary patterns (high intake of vegetables and fruits; low intake of saturated fats) and dietary constituents such as vitamins, minerals, and soy. Screening and early detection are important.
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You may have seen articles or websites advocating that starving patients of sugar are crucial for getting rid of tumors or that eating less sugar reduces the risk of cancer. The story is not that simple. Cancer cells always find alternatives to fuel their tank of glucose, no matter how little sugar we ingest. There is not a direct connection between eating sugar and getting cancer and it is always advisable to talk to your doctor if you have doubts about your diet.
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#3 Ultimate GREEN-ZONE #1104-4 capsules or #1103-6 powder. SUPER ANTIOXIDANT #1056-5 (contains Tocotrienols, which prevent breast cancer; Lycopenes, which reduce the risk of prostate cancer; Turmeric, which has anti-mutagenic activity; and Milk Thistle which protects and rejuvenates the liver).
#4 BREAST ASSURED #1122-4 contains a blend of nutrients & herbs to protect against breast cancer.
#5 PROTEASE PLUS #1841-7 Protease enzymes—also referred to as proteolytic enzymes—break down proteins into single amino acids. Proteases are capable of breaking down 300 grams of protein per hour. Used to treat acute inflammatory conditions such as sports injuries, surgery, and wounds; reduce and eliminate food allergies; fight cancer and infections, including viral infections such as shingles (Herpes zoster) and AIDS; and combat auto-immune diseases such lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and scleroderma. Research also shows that protease is largely responsible for keeping the small intestine free of parasites, including bacteria, intestinal worms, protozoa, and yeast.
I’m not certain whether PARP14 is the specific protein involved, but cancer-specific proteins have been successfully targeted by a number of up-and-coming treatments using viruses.
Rather than inhibit the protein, the viruses offer two different approaches. In some cases, the virus has been modified to latch onto the protein (e.g. smallpox that catastrophically infects cancer cells, but is incapable of infecting anything else) or reprogramming the immune system to identify and eradicate cancer (e.g. using HIV’s T-Cell invading ability to deliver a virtual “Wanted” poster instead of the virus).
Both of these treatments seem fairly stressful on the body, so a pill that could suppress the protein (rather than attack it) might end up being preferable. It seems a certainty that the future of cancer treatment is being created right now, and it (thankfully) looks nothing at all like the past.
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